Behavioral Sciences || Psychological Science
Author: Ian S. Robertson
Illustrations : 65 line figures
Master eBook ISBN10 : 0-203-45795-1
Master eBook ISBN13 : 978-0-203-45795-5
No of pages : 288
eBook Price : $34.95
Originally Published : 29 Mar 2001
Problem solving, such as planning and writing an essay, solving a crossword or dealing with your broken-down car is an integral part of everyday life yet few books are dedicated to this important aspect of human cognition. This comprehensive and timely textbook discusses the psychological processes underlying such goal-directed problem solving and examines both how we learn from the experience of problem solving and how our learning transfers (or often fails to transfer) from one situation to another. It also includes discussion of the methods and processes used by skilled problem solvers or "experts".
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Table of contents : PART I: Introduction.Introduction to the Study of Problem Solving. What is a Problem? Categorising Problems. Methods of Investigating Problem Solving. About this Book: Three Issues in Problem Solving. Summary. PART II: Problem Representation and Problem Solving Processes.Characterising Problem Solving. The Information-processing Approach. Analysing Well-defined Problems. The Interaction of the Problem Solver and the Task Environment. Heuristic Search Strategies. Summary. Strategies. Summary. PROBLEM REPRESENTATION: THE CASE OF INSIGHT. Building a Problem Representation. Re-representing Problems. Gestalt Accounts of Problen Solving. Information Processing Accounts of Insight. The Relationship Between Insight Problems and Other Problems. Influencing Problem Representations - The Effect of Instructions. Summary. PART III: Analogical Problem Solving. TRANSFER OF LEARNING. Positive and Negative transfer. Set and Einstellung as Examples of Negative Transfer. Hypothesis Testing Theory. Transfer in Well-defined Problems. Specific Transfer. General Transfer. What Kinds of Knowledge Transfer? Summary. PROBLEM SIMILARITY. Types of Similarity. Relational Similarity. Structural Similarity. Pragmatic Constraints. The Relation Between Surface and Structural Similarity. Summary. ANALOGICAL PROBLEM SOLVING. The Importance of Analogising. Studies of Analogical Problem Solving. Accessing a Source to Solve a Target. Generating Your Own Analogies. Expository Analogies. 'Aesthetic Analogies'. Summary. TEXTBOOK PROBLEM SOLVING. Difficulties Facing Textbook Writers. The Role of Examples in Textbooks. The Processes Involved in Textboook Problem Solving. Laboratory Studies of Within-domain and Textbook Problem Solving. Understanding Problems Revisited. The Role of Diagrams and Pictures in Aiding Understanding. Providing a Schema in Texts. Summary. Part IV: Learning and the Development of Expertise. EXPERTISE AND HOW TO ACQUIRE IT. Induction. Schema Induction. Schema-based Knowledge. AI Models of Problem Solving and Learning. Skill Learning in ACT-R. The Power Law of Learning. Criticisms of Production System Models. Neurological Evidence for the Development of Procedural Knowledge. Summary. EXPERTS, NOVICES AND COMPLEX PROBLEM SOLVING. What Distinguished Experts and Novices. Are Experts Smarter? Are There Differences in Abilities? Skill Development. Knowledge Organisation. Cognitive Processes. Writing Expertise - A Case Study. Summary. CONCLUSIONS. Problems, Problems. Problem Representation. Transfer. Learning. Answers to Questions. Glossary. References. Name Index. Subject Index.